Richard Johnson PhD 张力嘉博士, ‘Translation and Interpreting’ 笔译及口译

A distinction is commonly made between speaking and listening to a foreign language, and between reading and actually writing the language. A distinction is traditionally made between translating a foreign language and interpreting it orally. This all comes down to having an excellent grasp of the foreign language. Yet there is a distinction that does need to be made in terms of accuracy and style: the distinction between writing into one’s native language and writing into the second language. Errors in translating meaning are a possibility in either direction, but it is in writing into the second language that errors tend to be noticeable in grammar and word usage.

Even when a team effort may have been involved in translation, and even though a translators will seek the input of informants where necessary, there is a strong argument that a final translation should be in the hand of a native speaker of the target language. At the same time the fact that a translator has produced a very readable translation into his or her own language may not in itself imply faithfulness to the original text.  A logical conclusion for the production of accurate translation between a foreign language and English is the contribution of an  native speaking translator of each language,  with a final translation into English being written in the hand of the native speaker of English and a final translation into the other language written in the hand of a native speaker of that language  This is the approach adopted in the work of my firm, Australian Resources Translation Pty Ltd, which translates from and into Chinese and Indonesian.

In translation, the structure of the original text and the choice of terminology often tend to be transferred to the translated result. However in oral interpreting, what the interpreter says in either language can vary in style from what he or she has heard in either language. The interpretation takes place in real time and—rather than the full detailed scope of the communication—the prime consideration tends to be faithfulness to the intent of the speaker together with ensuring that the interlocutor has understood what has been said.

Four extremely important factors may be identified in translation and interpretation:

•     Accuracy:  In written translation, good style is valuable, but the bottom line is that the translation says what the original text says.  In interpreting, what is said should be  understandable to the audience.

•     Background information: The translator/interpreter needs a far as possible to be aware of the real world background to the text or conversation in question.

•     Perspective and empathy: The translator/interpreter needs as far as practicable to take into account the political, economic or technological perspective of a text or conversation, and to reflect as appropriate the reasoning and emotional tone of what is said. Yet he or she must remain dispassionate in conveying the message of the writer or speaker. In Confucian terms, ‘the dealings of the noble person are limpid as water;the dealings of the small person are sweet as honey.’

•     Confidentiality: The translator/interpreter must be discreet and observe the fundamental ethical principle of confidentiality.

The fact that interpreting does allow variation in spoken style has a very useful application when it comes to a situation where an English speaking officer knows the foreign language. To take Mandarin, where the officer is tasked with communicating information or discussing an issue with a Chinese interlocutor—a routine task for an Australian Embassy official in Beijing, or a Foreign Affairs desk officer in Canberra, for example—the emphasis will not primarily be on the words that may be used in formal communication in English. Rather, the officer is free to work to ensure that the Chinese interlocutor understands the implications of what is to be communicated and to clarify the Chinese response or at least gain feedback on background attitudes. The language barrier is effectively dismantled.

The preparation needed to ensure such simple and direct communication is not at all simple. It involves years of study and experience in using Chinese. Yet the ability of an officer to use Mandarin in a professional capacity will be readily apparent to Chinese officials. I have consistently seen the value of this direct communication over more than thirty years in China and Australia.

 

笔译及口译

               张力嘉博士

常听人说,一门外语的说和听有差别,读和写也有差别。并且,外语的笔头翻译和口头翻译也存在差别。这一切都归结到我们对一门外语的掌握程度。另外,母语写作和外语写作在准确度和风格方面存在差异。无论是把母语翻译成外语,还是把外语翻译成母语,都可能出错。但是,把母语翻译成外语,语法和选词出错的机率会更大。

即使是一个团队参与翻译,即使会在必要时借助外部支援,很多人还是强烈主张,翻译作品应由目标语言是母语的人定稿;另一方面,由目标语言是母语的翻译人员将外文翻译成自己的母语,虽然译文可读性较强,却有可能违背原文的意思。基于此,我们得出这样一个结论:一名母语为中文的翻译人员和一名母语为英文的翻译人员相互配合,中译英由英语是母语的翻译人员完稿,英译中由中文是母语的翻译人员完稿, 才能确保中英文之间的准确互译。我所在的公司‘澳大利亚资源翻译有限公司’就是采取这种方式。

在笔译过程中,原文的结构及词汇的选择在某种程度上会被转移到译文中。但是在口译过程中,口译员把听到的内容翻译成另外一种语言的时候可能会改变原话的语言风格。口译是实时进行,不见得会顾及到谈话的每个细节。所以,在口译时,主要考虑的问题是忠实于说话人所说的内容,同时确保听话人能明白。

笔译及口译中四个极其重要的因素:

  • 准确性: 笔译中,优雅的文体是很宝贵的,但底线是能够准确表达原文的意思。而口译是要确保听话的人明白讲话人要表达的意思。
  • 背景信息: 笔译或口译人员需要对笔译或口译内容的背景信息了解得越多越好。
  • 客观因素及换位思考: 笔译或口译人员应该尽最大可能考虑译文或会话的政治、经济或技术因素,尽可能反应出说话的逻辑和情绪,同时在传达作者和说话人的信息时保持中立。子曰:君子之交淡如水,小人之交甜如蜜。
  • 保密: 笔译或口译人员必须谨慎,必须严守保密这一基本的职业伦理。

口译允许改变说话风格,这一点是有实际意义的,特别是当讲英语的官员懂得某门外语(如中文)时:该官员需要同中方人士进行交流或者讨论一些问题(这是澳大利亚驻北京大使馆官员或者堪培拉外交部工作人员日常工作经常遇到的)。此时,语言的重点不在于使用的词语,这跟英文正式文体是有区别的。官员们可以任意地表达,只要确保中方人士能明白他想要表达的意思,同时能抓住对方中文回答的意思,至少获得对方态度的反馈。这样就有效地打破了语言障碍。

为如此简单和直接的交流所做的准备一点都不简单。这需要多年的中文学习和使用。然而,一名外国官员拥有专业的普通话能力对中国官员来说是轻而易举的。我在中国和澳大利亚生活的30多年间,一直都在见证着这种直接交流的价值。

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Richard Johnson

Richard K. Johnson PhD (NSW), MA (Hons I, Sydney), MA in International Studies (UTS), DipEd (Sydney), Certificate IV in Training & Assessment, Graduate Certificate in Research Commercialisation (UTS). NAATI Level 3 Translator, Chinese-English & Indonesian-English.
Dr Richard Johnson is a translator of Chinese and translator of Indonesian. A qualified secondary school and technical college teacher, Richard has studied the Chinese and Indonesian languages since 1964. After graduating with a Master of Arts degree in Chinese from the University of Sydney, he joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and was posted to Jakarta and Beijing as well as Tanzania and Hong Kong. After returning from Beijing he was Executive Officer in the Australia-China Council in Canberra until 1987. He then undertook postgraduate study and as a translator and consultant has been involved in a range of business activities, stressing his expertise in Chinese and Indonesian along with his ability to write clear, logical English for a very wide range of business purposes. His business work combines the use of spoken English, Chinese and Indonesian with the graphic impact of well written and presented text.

Richard created, wrote and taught the first Indonesian language course at the NSW Department of Education Correspondence School. He has taught Chinese translation at university level in Australia. Experienced in teaching English writing skills to Chinese students in Australia and China, at present he is creating an innovative course for Chinese students to learn to write English essays. Work in overseas Australian missions covered a wide range of economic, technical and cultural issues; in Australia he has handled liaison between government and private agencies and Chinese counterparts. As a diplomat and currently as a facilitator of business concepts and relationships as well as an educator, Richard contributes by clearly identifying what people are saying across cultural boundaries and conveying the essence and significance of this.

Chinese is a sensitive medium for communication if used effectively:
http://www.sbs.com.au/chinese/video/555879/%E9%9D%A2%E5%AF%B9%E9%9D%A2%E8%AE%BF%E9%97%AE%E6%BE%B3%E5%A4%A7%E5%88%A9%E4%BA%9A%E8%AF%AD%E8%A8%80%E5%AD%A6%E5%AE%B6%E5%BC%A0%E5%8A%9B%E5%98%89%EF%BC%88Richard-Johnson%EF%BC%89/

张力 嘉博士

新南威尔士大学博士;悉尼大学硕士学位、教育学文凭;悉尼科技大学国际研究硕士、悉尼科技大学 研究项目商业化证书
澳大利亚翻译认可局中文-英文与和印尼文-英文的三级翻证书
张力嘉博士是中文—英文翻译与印尼文—英文翻译。 他做澳大利亚资源翻译有限公司的董事兼总经理。该公司专门做中文翻英文和英文翻中文笔译以及印尼文翻英文和英文翻印尼文笔译。自1964年以来,张力嘉一直从事印尼语和中文的语言运用和研究工作。曾经被派往澳大利亚驻雅加达和北京大使馆工作。在外交部的澳中理事会秘书处任职之后,又继续了研究生学习并做翻译工作。无论是在教育领域还是在商业作为一名专业翻译,他都十分强调书面和口头表达的准确,通顺和优雅。张博士多年来一直致力于文化界线的超越和文化精髓的传播。

Educational Qualifications

2011 Graduate Certificate in Research Commercialisation, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS)
2011 Master of Arts in International Studies, thesis ‘Chaos Theory and the Development of Chinese Graphic Symbolism,’ UTS
2006 PhD, thesis ‘Terms and Processes in Translation between Indonesian and English,’ University of NSW
1992 NAATI Level 3 Translator, Chinese-English & Indonesian–English
1989 Course in Modern Indonesian Literature, Australian National University
1980 Language Proficiency Report, Chinese (Mandarin), United States Department of State Foreign Service Institute, Taipei: spoken Mandarin 3+, written Chinese 4  (5 = university-educated native speaker)
1980 12 month Mandarin Training Course, Chinese Language Centre, Chinese University of Hong Kong
1978 Courses in Semantics, Syntax, Language & Culture, and Phonetics (ANU)
1974 MA (Honours I, Sydney), thesis ‘The New Education: New Trends in Chinese Educational Thought in the Era of the May Fourth Movement’
1969-70 MA qualifying study in Chinese ( Sydney)
1967 Diploma in Education (Sydney)
1964-66 BA (Sydney): Chinese, Indonesian & Malayan Studies, Linguistics

 学历

 

 
2011 获得悉尼科技大学研究项目商业化证书
2011 获得悉尼技术大学国际研究硕士学位,论文题目‘用混沌理论来专攻中国平面设计图形符号发展’
2006 获得新南威尔士州大学博士学位,论文 ‘印尼文与英文互译的词句与语义问题’
1992 获得澳大利亚翻译认证局颁发的中译英与印译英的两份三级笔译证书
1989 澳大利亚国立大学,近代印尼文学课程
1980 在台北参加美国国务院外交部门的中文考试,结果普通话口语 3+, 中文阅读4  (5 相当于中文为母语的大学毕业生)
1980 参加香港中文大学中文语言研究中心的12个月普通话培训课程
1978 澳大利亚国立大学语言学:句法、语义学、语言与文化、语音学等课程
1974 获得悉尼大学优等硕士学位,论文,‘新教育:中国教育在五四时代的新趋势’
1969-70 悉尼大学获准攻读中文硕士
1967 获得悉尼大学教育学文凭
1964-66 获得悉尼大学学士学位,专业方向: 中文,印尼与马来亚研究,语言学

Employment History

1987-2012 Translator of Chinese, Translator of Indonesian, Teacher of English Written Expression (sole trader)
2007 Tutor in Chinese-English Translation, Macquarie University
 

 

 

 

1974-87

 

 

 

 

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs

Executive Officer, Australia-China Council, 1982-87
Second Secretary, Australian Embassy, Beijing, 1980-82
attached as Second Secretary, Australian Commission, Hong Kong, 1980
Third Secretary, Australian High Commission, Dar es Salaam, 1979
Desk Officer, United Nations Social & Technical Agencies Section, 1977-79
Vice Consul  thenThird Secretary, Australian Embassy, Jakarta, 1974-76
1972-73 Senior Research Assistant, Chinese dictionary project, and tutor in Chinese, Department of  Oriental Studies, University of Sydney
1969-72 Indonesian Language Teacher, NSW Dept of Education Correspondence School
1968-69 Secondary school teacher of Chinese and English, NSW Dept of Education

就业经验

 
1987- 个体经营,业务范围:中译英笔译、印译英笔译,英文写作导师
2007 麦考利大学中译英笔译导师
 

 

 

1974-87

 

 

澳大利亚 外交部

1982-87年 任澳中理事会执行官员
1980-82年 任澳大利亚驻华大使馆二秘
(1980 年澳大利亚驻香港专员公署二秘)
1979 年 任澳大利亚驻坦桑尼亚高级专员公署三秘
1977-79年 任联合国社会技术机关科负责人
1974-76年 任澳大利亚驻印尼大使馆副领事、后任三秘
1972-73 悉尼大学远东系任中英文词典项目高级助理研究员兼国语导师
1969-72 开设并教授首部新南威尔士州州立函授学校印尼语教程
1968-69 在悉尼中学教授中文和英文

 

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